Tuesday 2 July 2019

Growing Rice in the Paddy Fields: Frogs, Ducks, and Dragonflies

While Europe swelters, Japan remains stuck in the rainy season, though truth be told we haven't actually had that much rain to date. But once the rainy season ends it will be day upon day of hot humid days and sticky tropical nights, so I'm going to take a short break to escape the fierce Japanese summer. With this in mind, this will be the last blog post until the end of July, so I thought I'd write about something typically Japanese - rice! I was inspired after a recent walk through the countryside; it was impressive to see the young rice plants (nae =苗)growing in lines in the flooded paddy fields (tan-bo =田んぼ) - Japan grows rice using the wet cultivation method.
The rice growing calendar generally begins in April (though this varies depending on the latitude of the region). Since this coincides with the start of the school year, many students will learn how to plant and cultivate rice. This starts with "waking up" the fields - preparing a field for planting by flooding it and tilling the soil - something which is known as shiro-kaki (代掻き). The picture above shows children at one school walking through the muddy field bare-foot and hand-in-hand to loosen up the soil and make it easy for the water to filter through. The key is to keep moving or else you'll sink!

The next step is to actually plant the young 4 to 5 inch rice seedlings, known as ta-ue (田植え), which the students do by hand using a string pulled across the field as a rough guideline. Farmers of course do this with machinery!

As the rice grows, water management is key, and most farms will have an elaborate system of irrigation. Because the water level naturally drops, an eye needs to be kept on the field which has to be topped up periodically. Pest control against weeds and bugs is also necessary. Frogs help to keep the pests under control; interestingly, catching tadpoles in the fields is a typical Japanese summer after-school activity for local kids. Another organic way to keep the bugs off the crop is the use of aigamo (合鴨), a cross between a mallard and a domestic duck. Known as the aigamo method, this unique Japanese invention involves releasing ducklings into the field who not only eat weeds and insects but also oxygenate the field as they stir up the soil with their feet! Dragonflies are another paddy field staple; to sit and watch the colourful flyers dart around the field as the breeze makes a gentle sara-sara sound as it caresses the rice-plants is rather incredibly soothing.

Finally, come September or October it's time for ine-kari (稲刈り) or harvesting. This involves draining the last of the water, cutting the stalks, and taking the grain from the rice head - threshing - which is known as dakkoku (脱穀)in Japanese where da(tsu) is to take off and koku means grain. Again, this is usually done in the traditional fashion at school using simple threshing devices such as that pictured. The whole process is extremely labour intensive, so when the new rice (shin-mai =新米) - an official term designated by the Ministry of Agriculture - hits the shops in Autumn, it something of a special event to be celebrated and enjoyed. Itadakimasu!